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  • 不让一个学生因家庭经济困难而失学
  • ——2017年国家学生资助政策简介
  • 来源:本站原创
    时间:2017-05-27 14:46:58
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  • 不让一个学生因家庭经济困难而失学

    Affordable Education for All

    ——2017年国家学生资助政策简介

    - Student Financial Aid Policy in China 2017

    财政部教育部

    Ministry of Finance&Ministry of Education

    教育公平是社会公平的重要基础,促进教育公平是国家基本教育政策。党和国家高度重视家庭经济困难学生上学问题,近些年中央有关部门密集出台相关资助政策措施,已建立起覆盖学前教育至研究生教育的学生资助政策体系,从制度上保障不让一个学生因家庭经济困难而失学。

    Educationalequitymatters because it is an important basis for social equality, and the basic education policy in China is to ensure greater equity in education for all. The Chinese government is committed to increasing the affordability and availability of education for low-income students. And competent authorities over recent years have introduced a series of financial aid policies and put into place a financial aid system that runs from preschool education to graduate education, to institutionally ensure the affordability of education for low-income students.

    一、 高等教育学生资助政策

    A. Financial Aid for Students in Higher Education

    (一)本专科生教育阶段:国家奖助学金、国家助学贷款、学费补偿贷款代偿、校内奖助学金、勤工助学、困难补助、伙食补贴、学费减免、“绿色通道”等多种方式的混合资助体系

    1. Undergraduate students and junior college students have access to national scholarships and grants, national student loans, tuition and loan compensation, on-campus scholarships and grants, work-study, living allowances, food stipends, tuition reduction programs and Green Channels.

    1.国家奖学金。本专科生国家奖学金,用于奖励特别优秀的全日制普通高校本专科(含高职、第二学士学位)在校生,每年奖励本专科学生5万名,每生每年8000元。

    1.1 National Scholarships

    National scholarships are awarded to full-time undergraduates and junior college students, including those studying in vocational colleges or seeking a second bachelor’s degree. They are offered to 50,000 applicants across the country per year, and each eligible student will receive RMB 8,000 per year.

    2.国家励志奖学金。用于奖励资助品学兼优、家庭经济困难的全日制普通高校本专科(含高职、第二学士学位)在校生。国家励志奖学金资助面约为全国全日制普通高校本专科(含高职、第二学士学位)在校学生总数的3%,每生每年5000元。同一学年内,国家励志奖学金和国家奖学金不能同时获得。

    1.2 National Endeavor Fellowships

    National Endeavor Fellowships are open to 3% of full-time undergraduates and junior college students, including those in vocational colleges or seeking a second bachelor’s degree, who are with extraordinary financial need and outstanding academic performance. Each eligible student will receive RMB 5,000 per year and cannot apply for national scholarships in the same academic year.

    3.国家助学金。用于资助家庭经济困难的全日制普通高校本专科(含高职、第二学士学位)学生,国家助学金资助面约为全国全日制普通高校本专科(含高职、第二学士学位)在校学生总数的20%,平均资助标准为每生每年3000元,可分设2-3档。

    1.3 National Grants

    National grants are offered to 20% of full-time undergraduates and junior college students, including those studying in vocational colleges or seeking a second bachelor’s degree, who come from low-income families. Each eligible student will receive RMB 3,000 on average per year.

    4.国家助学贷款。国家助学贷款是由政府主导,皇都开户:金融机构向高校家庭经济困难学生提供的不需要担保或抵押的信用助学贷款,帮助解决在校期间的学费和住宿费用,每学年贷款金额原则上不超过8000元,贷款期限最长不超过20年。国家助学贷款利率执行中国人民银行同期公布的同档次基准利率,不上浮。贷款学生在校期间的贷款利息全部由财政贴息,毕业后的利息由学生支付,并按约定偿还本金。家庭经济困难学生申请国家助学贷款,有两种模式:一是校园地国家助学贷款,即通过就读学校向经办银行申请;二是生源地信用助学贷款,即通过户籍所在县(市、区)的学生资助管理机构提出申请(有的地区直接到相关金融机构申请)。

    1.4 National Student Loans

    National student loans are a government-led program in which financial institutions provide loans to low-income students without requiring any collateral, to help them pay tuition and accommodation fees. In principle each eligible student can borrow no more than RMB 8,000 per year, and the loans and interests must be repaid in less than 20 years. Interest rates for the loans are determined by the benchmark interest rates published by the People’s Bank of China at the time of loan issuance, depending on term length. They are fixed for the life of the loan.The government pays the interest for the students while enrolled in school, and after leaving school, the students need to pay the interest and principal in a manner as agreed with the banks.There are two types of national student loans: 1) university-based loans issued by banks in the region where the university is located, and 2) home-based loans issued by banks in the region where the student’ s residence is officially registered. To apply for either of the loans, low-income students can submit paperwork to their universities, to local student loan authorities, and in some regions, to financial institutions directly.

    5.基层就业学费补偿贷款代偿。对中央部门所属全日制普通高等学校应届毕业生,自愿到中西部地区和艰苦边远地区基层单位就业、服务期达到3年以上(含3年)的,实施学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿。补偿代偿金额根据毕业生在校期间每年实际缴纳的学费或获得的国家助学贷款确定,每生每年不高于8000元。每年补偿或代偿总额的1/3,分3年补偿代偿完毕。地方高校毕业生学费补偿贷款代偿由各地参照中央政策制定执行。

    1.5 Tuition and Loan Compensation for Community Workers

    The compensation program is available to full-time college students from universities directly administered by ministries, who volunteer to work at community levels in remote and underdeveloped regions in central and western China for at least three consecutive years. The amount of compensation is determined by the tuition fees or loans that eligible students have paid or received, and can reach up to RMB 8,000 per year. The tuition fees and loans are compensated in a period of three years - one third of the total every year. In local universities, details of the program are determined by local authorities in accordance with policies of the central government.

    6.应征入伍服义务兵役学费补偿贷款代偿及学费减免。对应征入伍服义务兵役的高等学校在校生及毕业生在校期间缴纳的学费或获得的国家助学贷款实施一次性补偿或代偿,对退役后复学的高校在校生(含高校新生)实行学费减免。补偿代偿金额根据学生在校期间每年实际缴纳的学费或获得的国家助学贷款确定,退役复学学费减免金额按照实际收取学费确定,每生每年均不高于8000元。

    1.6 Tuition and Loan Compensation& Tuition Reduction for Enlisted Soldiers

    The program is offered to college students drafted into military service and provides one-time compensation for their tuition fees or national student loans. If they return to college after retirement from service, the students, including freshmen, are qualified for tuition reduction. The amount of compensation is determined by the tuition fees or loans that the students have paid or received while enrolled in school. Each returning student will receive up to RMB 8,000 per year in reduced tuition fees.

    7.直招士官学费补偿贷款代偿。对直接招收为士官的高等学校学生,入伍时对其在校期间缴纳的学费实行一次性补偿或对其获得的国家助学贷款实行代偿,补偿代偿金额根据毕业生在校期间每年实际缴纳的学费或获得的国家助学贷款确定,每生每年不高于8000元。

    1.7 Tuition and Loan Compensation for Junior Military Officers

    The one-time compensation scheme is open to college students enlisted as junior military officers. The amount of compensation is determined by the tuition fees or national student loans that the students have paid or the national student loans that they have received while enrolled in school. Each eligible student will receive up to RMB 8,000 per year in compensated tuition fees or loans.

    8.师范生免费教育。在北京师范大学、华东师范大学、东北师范大学、华中师范大学、陕西师范大学和西南大学六所教育部直属师范大学实行师范生免费教育。免费教育师范生在校学习期间,免除学费、免缴住宿费,并补助生活费。地方师范院校师范生资助由各地自行实施。享受师范生免费教育的学生可以申请国家奖学金,但不能申请国家励志奖学金和国家助学金。

    1.8Free Education for Future Teachers

    Free educationis available to students in Beijing Normal University, East China Normal University, Northeast Normal University, Central China Normal University, Shaanxi Normal University and Southwest University, all of which are directly administered by the Ministry of Education. Students under teacher training programs will be exempted from tuition and accommodation fees and provided with living allowances. Details of the program for other teachers’ universities at local levels determined by local authorities. Eligible students can apply for national scholarships, but not national endeavor fellowships or national grants.

    9.退役士兵教育资助。对退役一年以上、考入全日制普通高等学校的自主就业退役士兵,给予教育资助。内容:一是学费资助;二是家庭经济困难退役士兵学生生活费资助;三是其他奖助学金资助。学费资助标准,按省级人民政府制定的学费标准,每学年每生最高不超过8000元。生活费及其他奖助学金资助标准,按国家现行高校学生资助政策的有关规定执行。

    1.9 Education Grants for Retired Soldiers

    The grants are available to self-employed soldiers who have retired from active service for at least one year and been admitted as full-time college students. They consist of1) tuition grants which can reach up to RMB 8,000 per year based on tuition rates set by provincial governments, and 2) living allowances for low-income soldiers, and 3) scholarships and grants in other forms.The latter two are provided in a manner consistent with relevant national regulations of grants for college students.

    10.新生入学资助项目。从2012年起,对中西部地区启动高校家庭经济困难新生入学资助项目,用于解决学生家庭至录取学校间的路费及入校后短期生活费,省(区、市)内院校录取的新生每人资助500元,省(区、市)外院校录取的新生每人资助1000元。

    1.10 Freshman Grants

    Freshman grants are offered to low-income admittedcollege students from central and western China, to help them travel to colleges for registration and pay for college living expenses in the short term. Each eligible student will receive RMB 500 when admitted to a university located in the province where the student resides, and RMB 1,000 when admitted to a university in a different province.

    11.勤工助学。学校设置校内勤工助学岗位,并为学生提供校外勤工助学机会。家庭经济困难学生优先考虑。学生参加勤工助学原则上每周不超过8小时,每月不超过40小时,劳动报酬原则上不低于当地政府或有关部门制定的最低工资标准或居民最低生活保障标准。

    1.11 Work-study

    Work-study programs provide on-campus part-time jobs and off-campus part-time job opportunities to all students, with a particular focus on those from low-income families. In principle students under these programs work for no more than 8 hours a week, or no more than 40 hours a month. And in principle their compensation will be no less than local minimum wage standards or subsistence allowances.

    12.校内资助。学校利用从事业收入中提取的资助资金以及社会团体、企事业单位和个人捐助资金等,设立校内奖学金、助学金、困难补助、伙食补贴、校内无息借款、减免学费等。

    1.12 School Programs

    School programs consist of scholarships, grants, living allowances, food stipends, interest-free loans and tuition reduction programs. They are funded by contributions from universities and donations from non-government organizations, businesses, public institutions and individuals.

    13.绿色通道。全日制普通高校建立“绿色通道”,对被录取入学、无法缴纳学费的家庭经济困难新生,先办理入学手续,然后再根据学生实际情况,分别采取不同办法予以资助。

    1.13 Green Channels

    Green channels are available to admitted full-time students who cannot afford tuition fees. Under the scheme, eligible students can register as scheduled and will be provided with financial support based on their financial need.

    (二)研究生教育阶段:国家奖助学金、“三助”岗位津贴、国家助学贷款、学费补偿贷款代偿等多种方式并举

    2Graduate students have access to national scholarships and grants, on-campus part-time job allowances, national student loans, and tuition and loan compensation programs.

    1.国家奖学金。研究生国家奖学金用于奖励特别优秀的研究生。每年奖励4.5万名,其中硕士生3.5万名、每生每年2万元,博士生1万名、每生每年3万元。

    2.1 National Scholarships

    National scholarships are awarded to graduate students with a record of strong academic achievement. They are offered to 35,000 master's degree students - RMB 20,000 each per year, and 10,000 doctoral students - RMB 30,000 each per year.

    2.学业奖学金。为激励研究生勤奋学习、潜心科研、勇于创新、积极进取而设立的奖学金。中央高校根据研究生收费标准、学业成绩、科研成果、社会服务以及家庭经济状况等因素,确定研究生学业奖学金的覆盖面、等级、奖励标准和评定办法(可分档设定奖励标准)。研究生学业奖学金标准不得超过同阶段研究生国家奖学金标准的60%。地方高校研究生学业奖学金政策由各地参照中央政策制定执行。

    2.2 Academic Excellence Scholarships

    Academic Excellence Scholarshipsare designed to boostgraduate students’ commitment to academic research, innovation and excellence. In universities directly administered by ministries, the coverage, size and implementation of the scholarships are determined by a wide range of criteria, including tuition fees, academic achievement, research performance, community services and financial background of the candidates. The amount of scholarships can reach up to 60% of national scholarships for graduates. The scholarships in local universities are implemented in accordance with policies of the central government.

    3.国家助学金。用于资助全国普通高等学校纳入全国研究生招生计划的所有全日制研究生(有固定工资收入的除外)的基本生活支出。硕士研究生资助标准不低于每生每年6000元,博士研究生资助标准不低于每生每年10000元。

    2.3 National Grants

    National grants are offered to full-time graduate students (exepct those formally employed) to help them pay college living expenses. Each eligible graduate student will receive no less than RMB 6,000, and each eligible doctoral student no less than RMB 10,000 per year.

    4.“三助”岗位津贴。高等学校利用教育拨款、科研经费、学费收入、社会捐助等资金,设置研究生“三助”(助研、助教、助管)岗位,并提供“三助”津贴。原则上,助研津贴主要通过科研项目经费中的劳务费及科研间接费列支,助教津贴和助管津贴所需资金由高等学校承担。研究生“三助”津贴标准由高校依据国家有关规定,结合当地物价水平等因素合理确定。

    2.4 On-Campus Part-Time Job Allowances

    The allowance scheme is funded by educational appropriations, research revenue, tuition fees of the university, as well as public donations. It is available to students who work as research assistants, teaching assistants and administrative assistants on campus. In principle allowances for research assistants are offered as labor costs and indirect research spending, and those for teaching assistants and administrative assistants are borne by the university. The amount of allowances is determined by the university in accordance with national regulations and local price levels.

    5.国家助学贷款。研究生申请国家助学贷款的条件、程序及其他有关规定,与高校本专科生国家助学贷款基本相同。原则上,研究生助学贷款以校园地国家助学贷款为主,每学年每生贷款金额不超过12000元。

    2.5 National Student Loans

    National student loans for graduate students are offered in the same manner as those for undergraduates and junior college students. In principle the loans are university-based, and each eligible student can borrow no more than RMB 12,000 per year.

    6.基层就业学费补偿贷款代偿。应届毕业研究生赴基层就业申请学费补偿贷款代偿的条件、程序及相关规定,与本专科毕业生基本相同。研究生补偿代偿金额每生每年不高于12000元。

    2.6 Tuition and Loan Compensation for Community Workers

    The compensation program is operated in the same manner as that for undergraduates and junior college students. Each eligible student will receive up to RMB 12,000 per year in compensated tuition and loan.

    7.应征入伍服义务兵役学费补偿贷款代偿及学费减免。研究生应征入伍服义务兵役申请学费补偿贷款代偿及学费减免的条件、程序及相关规定,与本专科生基本相同。研究生补偿代偿或学费减免金额每生每年不高于12000元。

    2.7 Tuition and Loan Compensation& Tuition Reduction for Enlisted Soldiers

    The programs is run in the same manner as that for undergraduates and junior college students. Each eligible student will receive up to RMB 12,000 per year in compensated loans or reduced tuition fees.

    8.直招士官学费补偿贷款代偿。对直接招收为士官的研究生,其申请学费补偿贷款代偿的条件、程序及相关规定,与本专科生基本相同。研究生补偿代偿金额每生每年不高于12000元。

    2.8 Tuition and Loan Compensation for Junior Military Officers

    The compensation scheme is operated in the same manner as that for undergraduates and junior college students. Each eligible student will receive up to RMB 12,000 per year in compensated tuition fees and loans.

    9.退役士兵教育资助。对退役一年以上、考入普通高等学校并纳入全国全日制研究生招生计划的自主就业退役士兵,给予教育资助。资助内容与本专科生基本相同。学费资助标准每学年每生最高不超过12000元。

    2.9 Education Grants for Retired Soldiers

    The grantsare available to self-employed soldiers who have retired from active service for at least one year and been admitted as full-time college students under master’s degree programs. The grants are provided in the same manner as those for undergraduates and junior college students, and each eligible students will receive up to RMB 12,000 per year in tuition grants.

    二、中等职业教育学生资助政策

    B.Financial Aid for Students in Secondary Vocational Education

    建立起以国家免学费、国家助学金为主,学校和社会资助及顶岗实习等为补充的学生资助政策体系。

    Financial aid for students in secondary vocational education includes tuition exemption and national scholarships, supported by contributions by schools, donations of non-governmental organizations and internship programs.

    1.免学费

    国家对中等职业学校全日制正式学籍一、二、三年级在校生中所有农村(含县镇)学生、城市涉农专业学生和家庭经济困难学生、艺术类戏曲表演专业学生免除学费(艺术类其他表演专业学生除外)。

    1 Tuition Exemption

    The tuition exemption scheme is offered to full-time first, second and third graders in secondary vocational schools. Eligible applicants are 1) rural students, including those from towns and counties, 2) urban students who come from low-income families or major in agriculture and related disciplines, and 3) students of traditional Chinese operas, and students of other performing arts are not qualified for the scheme.

    对民办中等职业学校符合免学费条件的学生,按照当地相同类型同专业公办中等职业学校免学费标准给予补助。学费标准高出公办学校免学费标准部分由学生家庭负担;低于公办学校免学费标准的,按照民办学校实际学费标准予以补助。

    The scheme is also open to eligible students in private schools. They will receive compensation to balance out tuition fees. When their tuition fees exceed those in public schools, the students will pay for the balance.

    2.国家助学金

    国家助学金资助对象为全日制正式学籍一、二年级在校涉农专业学生和非涉农专业家庭经济困难学生,资助标准生均每年2000元。

    2 National Grants

    National grants are available to full-time first and second graders who major in agriculture and related disciplines or come from low-income families. Each eligible student will receive an average RMB 2,000 per year.

    家庭经济困难学生比例按区域确定,六盘山区等11个连片特困地区和西藏、四省藏区、新疆南疆三地州中等职业学校农村学生(不含县城)全部纳入享受助学金范围。

    The share of low-income students in the recipients varies by region. National grants are offered to all rural students in schools in eleven regions where the extremely poor population concentrates; in the Tibet autonomous region; in Tibetan communities in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu provinces; and in Kashgar, Khotan and Kizilsu Kirghiz in Xinjiang.

    地方出台的中等职业教育免学费政策和助学金政策,范围大于或相关标准高于国家标准的,可按照本地的办法继续实施。

    Tuition exemption and grant policies introduced by local governments, which may have a larger coverage or provide more grants than those by the central government, can be introduced and continued based on local realities.

    3.顶岗实习

    安排中等职业学校三年级学生到企业等单位顶岗实习,获得一定报酬,用于支付学习和生活费用。

    3 Internships

    Third graders can work as full-time interns in companies and get paid based on performance to pay studying and living expenses.

    4.奖学金

    地方政府、相关行业、企业安排专项资金设立中职学生奖学金。

    4 Scholarships

    Local governments, industries and business can provide scholarship programs for students in secondary vocational schools.

    5.学校免学费等

    中等职业学校每年安排一定的经费,用于国家免学费政策之外的学费减免、勤工助学、校内奖学金和特殊困难补助等。

    5 School Programs

    Every year theschools leverage their financial resources to offer tuition reduction, work-study, scholarships and living allowances on top of the state-run tuition exemption program.

    6.其他资助

    鼓励和支持社会团体、企事业单位以及个人资助中职学校家庭经济困难学生。

    6 Others

    Non-governmental organizations, public institutions and businesses and individuals are encouraged to provide financial support to low-income students in secondary vocational schools.

    三、普通高中教育学生资助政策

    C. Financial Aid for Students in Senior High Education

    建立起以政府为主导,社会力量积极参与的普通高中家庭经济困难学生资助政策体系。

    Financialaid for students in senior high school education is a system led by the government and supported by wider public participation.

    1.免除学杂费。从2016年秋季学期起,免除公办普通高中建档立卡家庭经济困难学生,包括非建档立卡家庭经济困难残疾学生的学杂费,对民办学校符合条件的学生,按照当地同类型公办学校标准给予补助。

    1 Exemption of Tuition and Miscellaneous Fees

    From the autumn semester in 2016, officially registered low-income students, including unregistered ones living with disabilities, are qualified for exemption of tuition and miscellaneous fees in public senior high schools. Eligible students in private schools receive the same level of compensation as in public schools.

    2.国家助学金。用于资助普通高中在校生中的家庭经济困难学生,资助面约占全国普通高中在校生总数的20%,平均资助标准为每生每年2000元,具体标准由各地结合实际分档确定。

    2 National Grants

    National grants are offered to 20% of senior high school students, who come from low-income families. Each eligible student will receive an average RMB 2,000 per year. Details of the scholarships are determined by local authorities based on their realities.

    3.学校资助。学校从事业收入中提取一定比例的经费,用于减免学费、设立校内奖助学金和特殊困难补助等支出。

    3. School Programs

    The grants take the form of tuition reduction, scholarships and special living allowances offered by the schools.

    4.社会资助。积极引导和鼓励企业、社会团体及个人等面向普通高中设立奖学金、助学金。

    4. Private Programs

    Non-governmental organizations, businesses and individuals are encouraged to provide scholarships and grants in senior high schools.

    四、义务教育学生资助政策

    D. FinancialAid for Students in Compulsory Education

    全面免除城乡义务教育阶段学生学杂费、免费提供教科书,对家庭经济困难寄宿生提供生活补助,实施营养改善计划。

    Financial aid for students in compulsory education consists of exemption of tuitionand miscellaneous fees, free textbooks, living allowances for low-income resident students and nutrition improvement plans.

    1.免学杂费。全部免除城乡义务教育阶段所有学生学杂费。

    1 Exemption of Tuition and Miscellaneous Fees

    All rural and urban students in compulsory education are exempted from tuition and miscellaneous fees.

    2.免费教科书。对义务教育阶段所有学生免费提供教科书。免费教科书资金,国家规定课程由中央全额承担,地方课程由地方承担。同时国家为小学一年级新生免费提供正版学生字典,所需资金由中央财政全额承担。

    2 Free Textbooks

    All the students in compulsory education are provided with free textbooks. Textbooks of nationally designed courses are funded by the central government, while those for locally designed ones are funded by local governments. In addition, first graders in elementary schools are provided with free dictionaries funded by the central government.

    3.寄宿生生活补助。城乡家庭经济困难寄宿生可以享受寄宿生生活费补助。补助标准为小学生每生每年1000元、初中生每生每年1250元。

    3 Living Allowances for Resident Students

    The allowances are available to low-income resident students from both rural and urban areas. Students in elementary schools will receive RMB 1,000 and students in junior high schools RMB 1,250, per year.

    4.营养改善计划。国家实施农村义务教育学生营养改善计划。中央财政为国家试点地区农村义务教育阶段学生提供营养膳食补助,补助形式为向学生提供等值优质食品,不以现金形式直接发放。补助标准为每生每年800元。

    4 Nutrition Improvement Plans

    The state-run plans are targeted at students in compulsory education in rural areas. The central government now provides each student with nutrition-rich food worth RMB 800 per year under pilot programs.

    五、学前教育资助政策

    E. Financial Aid for Students in Pre-School Education

    按照“地方先行、中央补助”的原则,各地建立学前教育资助政策体系。

    The financial aid system for pre-school education leverages local financial resources and is supplemented by fiscal support from the central government.

    1.政府资助。地方政府对经县级以上教育行政部门审批设立的普惠性幼儿园在园家庭经济困难儿童、孤儿和残疾儿童予以资助。中央财政根据地方出台的资助政策、经费投入及实施效果等因素,予以奖补。

    1 GovernmentGrants

    Local governments provide grants to low-income students, orphans and students living with disabilities in public kindergartens and private kindergartens for social welfare purposes. At the same time the central government offers awards and subsidies to the schools, in line with local policies and based on the performance of government expenditure.

    2.幼儿园资助。幼儿园从事业收入中提取一定比例的经费,用于减免收费、提供特殊困难补助等,具体比例由各地自行确定。

    2 School Grants

    Kindergartens allocate a certain percentage of their revenues as grants that take the form of tuition reduction programs and special living allowances. The percentage rate is determined by local authorities.

    3.社会资助。各地建立和完善相关优惠政策,积极引导和鼓励社会团体、企事业单位及个人等捐资,帮助家庭经济困难儿童、孤儿和残疾儿童接受普惠性学前教育。

    3 Private Programs

    With strengthened policies measures, non-governmental organizations, public institutions and businesses and individuals are encouraged to increase financial support to expand access to pre-school education for poor and orphaned children and those living with disabilities.

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